WP 6 - Control schemes for the use of flexibility
The main objective of this work package is to design and develop control functions for the three axes of operation as described before (distributed control, vertical control, pan-European control). The main focus is in the frequency and voltage control in the transmission level but also the other control objectives in distribution level, among other reactive power, load control etc will be taken into account in order to avoid congestions, security margins and minimising losses. This includes the following items:
• To describe the inherent and controllable flexibility across multiple resources and control boundaries.
• To design and develop robust coordination function modules for multiple controllers across different control boundaries.
• To design and develop new control function modules for emergency situations exploiting the flexibility of adaptive protection and inherent controllability of network assets.
• To design economically optimal coordinating control between system operators at European level in order to share flexibility resources via transmission system interconnections.
The purpose of this whole project is to research radical control solutions for the real time operation of the 2030 power system. The control solutions utilise the flexibility from across traditional boundaries (of voltage level, stakeholders, license areas, etc.) in a holistic fashion and build ubiquitous sensing and dynamic and autonomous control functions under normal and disturbed conditions.
A number of national and European projects have demonstrated the utilisation of flexibility within individual categories of grid connected devices, such as various types of domestic load, EV charging, storages, virtual power plants (VPPs) with distributed generation. This work package builds on this body of work but importantly addresses the problem more holistically. The work will consider the flexibility of different types of resources (demand, generation, storage, interconnection, network automation and network devices) and the coordinated utilisation of dispatchable resources taking account of inherent fast-acting response of other devices. The solutions exploit the design of associated flexibility in control and protection schemes in order to adapt to the changing power system states. Such a scheme must take account of inherent dynamic response, local controls, centralised control actions, decentralised controls, and direct and price driven control mechanisms. This work will include the flexible provision of both voltage and frequency control.
Effective control and equitable distribution of rewards requires the flexibility to be measurable. Control measures must take account of the confidence bands associated with these observations. Such flexibility must be able to be exercised under emergency and restorative conditions as well as normal operating conditions.The solutions are based on the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM), and they use the flexibility available at smart grid connection points and in the network provided by a diverse group of actors – individual prosumers, large generators, network operators, aggregators, suppliers. The work is also in line with the high profile of flexibility in SRA2035, especially Research area IS "Integrated truly sustainable, secure and economic electricity Systems". This work package will develop key elements that contribute to the realisation of the new system control architectures under development within the EERA JP SG SP1. Likewise the control techniques will incorporate the flexibility available from storage resources in SP4 and interoperability issues available in SP3.
• T6.1: Description of inherent and controllable flexibility across multiple resources and control boundaries
• T6.2: Development of robust coordination functions for multiple controllers across different control boundaries
• T6.3: Minimising the impact of system disturbances on real time operation
• T6.4: Design of economically optimal control of flexibility options (minutes to hours)
WP Leader: Hanninen S. (VTT)
WP Vice Leader: Burt G. (USTRATH)
Partner involved: RSE, AIT, VITO, DTU, VTT, CRES, IPE, SINTEF, IEN, INESC, TEC, JRC, TNO, TUBITAK, USTRATH, OFFIS